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    SBL scenario based learning

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 24/01/2010

    SBL scenario based learning

    مُساهمة  Admin في السبت يناير 30, 2010 3:00 pm


    {SBL }Scenario-based Learning
    Disadvantages of teacing formal language:
    (1) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
    (2) Long elaborate explanations of the detailsof grammar are given.
    (3) Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
    (4) Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
    (5) Little or no attention is given to pronunciation and speaking.
    *This teaching method can cultivate the students’ reading ability and their analysis of grammar, but its disadvantages are obviously seen. It separates the language from daily life and there is no interaction between learners and instructor and among the learners themselves, which is the most vital essence in language learning.
    *The teachers and students'role in Teaching formal language:
    *As a result, the English teacher tends to be the provider of the language knowledge.
    The students are the passive and dependant receivers in their learning.
    During the last two decades, many teaching methods or approaches have been, such as
    the Direct Method, the Audio-Lingual Method, the Cognitive Approach and the Functional Approach etc. These
    methods emphasize the integrated improvement of listening, speaking, reading and writing, less dependence on
    the mother tongue, and the frequent use of the target language. The situational and functional environments in
    language learning and teaching are the main focus in these English teaching methods. The goal has shifted from
    linguistic competence to communicative competence.
    2.2 The new syllabus of college English
    Since the beginning of 2004, the trial implementation of College English Curriculum Requirements has
    aimed to promote new developments of English teaching in higher education. Special emphasis is laid on the
    ability to exchange information effectively through both spoken and written forms while in the old curriculum of
    1999, the priority was given to students’ reading ability.
    Besides, the distinctive differences between the old curriculum and the new one consist in four other aspects.
    Firstly, the new curriculum stresses the introduction of new teaching models with the help of modern information
    technology, particularly network technology. It also draws more attention to students’ practical and academic use
    of English in their daily lives and studies, e.g. in writing, it states the students’ ability in filling in registration
    forms, application forms and questionnaires, and listening and writing competence in the academic conferences of
    their own specialized field is mentioned. Moreover, with regard to the students’ diverse levels and the educational
    situations of urban and rural areas, the new curriculum presents three levels of requirements: Preliminary
    Requirement, Intermediate Requirement and Advanced Requirement, which will meet the demands of students
    with different English proficiencies. Finally, one of the most significant aspects of the new curriculum is the stress
    on students’ assessment and reflection on their own learning processes and proficiencies. Students are required to
    give self-assessment and peer-assessment on their four skills of English learning, which will lead to their critical
    thinking of their own learning and their identification of the strengths to build on and weaknesses to overcome.
    *The advantages of Scenario-based Learning
    1-communicative ability both in the oral and written forms is highly emphasized.
    2-Scenario-based Learning (SBL) provides students with opportunities to develop a range of communication skills. 3-Its advantages make it an effective way in language practice, especially speaking.
    4-SBL is learning that occurs in a context, situation or social framework. It’s based on the concept of situated cognition, which is the idea that knowledge can’t be known and fully understood independent of its context.
    5- Its purpose is to give the students an opportunity to work with others in determining how an individual or group
    might behave in response to a particular situation. Participants are provided an opportunity to consider how individuals may feel, think or act when faced with a problem and to consider alternative possibilities.
    6-The SBLcan be in the forms of role-play, simulation and group/class discussion.
    *There are some advantages of using SBL as a language teaching strategy:
    (1) involving students actively in learning so that they appreciate the value of participation, rather than just hoping to learn by rote.
    (2) Enabling students to get the “feeling” of situations in ways that might be impossible in real life.
    (3) Providing students with opportunities and a safe environment in which to experiment and take risk in
    their interactions with others and, through these experience to gain a better understanding of their own value and
    attitudes (Killen, R., 1998).
    (4) Helping students to understand that there are causal relationships between people’s behaviour and the
    outcomes of events (Drake & Corbin, 1993). This understanding is enhanced because the consequence of behaviors can be immediately observed and evaluated.
    (5) Encouraging students to develop skills and self-confidence that will be useful to them in all facets of their
    school life and beyond. “Because this kind of learning involves the whole person --- intellect, feeling and body
    senses --- it tends to be experienced more deeply and remembered longer.” (Brookfield, 1990)
    Therefore, SBL can be a very useful way in language teaching because it can provide students with a
    communicative atmosphere through interaction with other classmates, and motivate them to become involved in
    learning.
    3.2 Why should SBL be in a reflective way?
    However, SBL can tend to become an interesting pastime in which no learning occurs. In a learning
    environment, the form of activity needs to be based on learners acting as researchers, responsible for defining
    their own knowledge and learning outcomes. Young people need to reflect on the activity, identify what it is they
    are learning and then apply the understandings gained from the learning to inform future action (Carnell & Lodge,
    2002). In language teaching, reflection both from teachers and students will highlight SBL’s advantages.
    3.3 The two reflective SBL models in speaking and writing practice
    Speaking and writing are both productive skills in language learning, which place a great demand on
    students’ logical and critical thinking. Their experience and knowledge of life are the source for their language
    production. In the SBL, students can share and understand the feelings and attitudes of others by experiencing
    situations rather than just hearing or reading about them. Their topics of discussion or role-play can focus on
    social and political issues, which will also enrich their ideas and language in speaking and writing practice.
    By using reflective SBL, the incorporation of speaking and writing can result in the improvement of both
    skills.
    Improvement of EFL Learners’ Speaking and Writing through Reflective Scenario-based Learning
    26
    The difference between models A and B lies in the aim of practice. Model A focuses on more fluent speaking
    while Model B on more effective writing.
    Examples:
    Scenario (1): In China many young people are dreaming of overseas study in such developed countries as the
    U.S., the U.K., and Australia. Discuss with your group members about the advantages and disadvantages of
    studying abroad. Then write a passage to show your own opinions on overseas study.
    Scenario (2): Lin Yang is going to apply for overseas study but he has no idea about how to do it. Discuss and
    work out a plan with your group members to apply for overseas study. Write down the procedures and the forms
    you have to fill in.
    Scenario (3): Write a scripted story about overseas students, paying attention to the settings, roles and plots.
    After finishing writing, perform the story with your group members.
    Scenario (1) and (2) are the practice of model A focusing on the effective writing and scenario (3) is the
    model B to aim at the fluent speaking. In scenario (3), students have freedom to decide their story content and the
    structure of scenes, which will result in much variety and imaginative role-playing.
    *The roles of teachers and students
    Instead of being the controller, the teacher in the reflective SBL is the designer, observer and co-operator.
    Teachers should clearly explain and discuss the aims and structures of SBL to students so that the students have a
    clear picture of the learning objectives, scenario questions and assessment.
    Students are the actors and planners of the SBL. They are required to reflect on their writing and speaking in
    the scenario assignment, e.g., how they organize, how much information they have used, how creative and
    original their ideas are, what new vocabulary or sentence structures they have used in the writing and how they
    feel about their speaking performance.
    4. Conclusion
    The reflective SBL is meant to simulate real situations, obtain and review learners’ feedback so that a better
    plan for teaching and learning can be made. It creates a useful learning experience where students are involved in
    authentic activities to stimulate their creativity and imagination in their speaking and writing. By using the SBL
    Improving
    Writing
    Reflecting
    Speaking
    A
    Improving
    Speaking
    Reflecting
    Writing
    B
    Improvement of EFL Learners’ Speaking and Writing through Reflective Scenario-based Learning
    27
    some factors that hinder English teaching in China are expected to be overcome, for example, the large scale of
    the class and the lack of an authentic English language environment. The group work in SBL can involve almost
    every student in activities, and it can also lessen the shyness of the Chinese students, most of whom are reluctant
    to speak and cooperate in the whole class.
    Given the diversity in English teaching and learning in China, there is still a lot to reflect on and to develop
    in the reflective SLB so that improvement can be made.

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      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأحد ديسمبر 11, 2016 3:42 pm